Monday, September 12, 2011

Kale IPM

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Excuse me, but there’s a worm in your pesto.
Kale leaf foliage,
stripped from the leaf 'rib'.
The finished product: kale pesto!
The finished, finished product:
kale pesto on homemade pizza.
Yesterday afternoon, my husband and I harvested kale and basil to make pesto. The basil did quite well this season – with nary a pest blemishing its leaves. The kale, on the other hand, came with several added bonuses that I didn’t want in the pesto:
  • Cabbage worm larvae (caterpillars) and eggs
  • Aphids - with signs that an infestation was imminent
  • Spiders and their webs
We harvested the kale, and I carefully inspected and washed each leaf before cutting the flesh of the leaf blades from the rib. We made a tasty kale pesto, that was delicious on pizza with homemade crust and sauce (shout out to my husband, who is the cooking brains in this operation).

But as I was making the pesto (or, cleaning the leaves, so my husband could make pesto), I knew it was time to go out into the garden to manage the cabbage worms and the aphids, before they got out of control.

Cabbage worms are the larvae (young) of the ubiquitous cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae) that you see flying around everywhere. The adult butterflies lay their eggs on cruciferous plants: broccoli, cabbage, collard greens, Brussels sprouts and kale. The larvae can’t feed on non-crucifers. Thus, females who make a ‘mistake’ and lay their eggs on a non-cruciferous plant basically doom their young to death by starvation.

I've dealt with the cabbage worms all summer long. Every day when I watered, I carefully picked their eggs off of the kale leaves. I searched the leaves and picked off the caterpillars that hatched from eggs that I missed. I was happy when my husband cleared out a nearby tangle of grape and blackberry canes (i.e. stems), and the spiders promptly migrated from that area and into my vegetable garden. The spiders surely helped to keep the cabbage worm population down - pouncing on caterpillars as they munched on my kale, or entangling the caterpillars in their web. They might even munch on an aphid or two (although, spiders really prefer and need the protein rich meal that the caterpillars offer - much more nutritious than the sac of sugar that is an aphid).

Two cabbage worm eggs
on kale. I picked these off of
kale leaves, as I watered the
A late-instar cabbage worm,
almost ready to build a cocoon.
I pick these off of leaves, as well.
Spiders munch on cabbage worms
and other insect pests. I leave
these be in my garden.  They're my
pest control buddies.
But, the spiders couldn't do it all themselves. After harvesting and cleaning this batch of kale, I knew that I needed to go out into the garden and use chemical controls. My conundrum, however, is that I wanted to control the cabbage worms and the aphids, but not harm the spiders. I needed to use pesticides that had a 'narrow spectrum' of activity. Narrow spectrum insecticides harm a relatively few types of insects and other arthropods. Broad spectrum pesticides harm a large array of insect types, and are thus more likely to harm both your pest (which you want) and your beneficials (which you don't want).

I went to my pesticide storage container, and decided on 2 products. Both products are organic. When I need to use a pesticide, I prefer using organic pesticides, over synthetic pesticides in my vegetable garden. The major benefit of using an organic pesticide over a synthetic pesticide is that organic pesticides degrade quicker than synthetics, after they are applied. I hate the idea of eating pesticide residues with my vegetables, so when I am treating edible plants, I almost always use an organic product. I want that extra assurance that the vegetables will be pesticide free when I harvest, cook and consume them.

The products are also formulated, so that they will help manage the cabbage worms and the aphids, but that they are unlikely to harm other insects and arthropods. I wanted to protect my garden spiders, afterall. They're my caterpillar eating buddies.

Label of a narrow-spectrum insecticide with the active
ingredient Bt-k (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki).
To control the cabbage worms, I chose a dust formulation of a product whose active ingredient is Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (also called Bt-k). The insecticide only works against the larvae of butterflies and moths (like, the cabbage worm caterpillar I am trying to manage on my kale). In addition, this insecticide must be eaten in order for it to be effective. Thus, if I sprinkle the dust only on my kale leaves, only those caterpillars that are eating my kale will get a dose of the insecticide. The brand name of the product doesn't matter. Look for the active ingredient (Bt-k), formulated as a dust.

Pay attention to the directions for use. You only need 0.5-1 oz per 50 square foot of garden. One ounce = 2 tablespoons. Thus, for a standard sized 3 foot by 5 foot garden bed, you only need one third to two thirds of a tablespoon. Since this product often comes as a dust formulation, and is packaged in way that you can simply 'shake out' the pesticide, much the same way you might sprinkle Parmesan cheese on top of spaghetti, it's unfortunately easy to over apply this pesticide. To avoid over applying, set the dispenser so that the pesticide will lightly sprinkle out of the packaging. Don't open the dispenser all of the way when applying.
Note that you only need 0.5-1.0 ounces
per 50 square feet of garden.  This is a
very small amount!  Be careful not to
over apply.
Instead, apply a fine dusting, with the
container open only the tiniest amount.
If you apply the dust with all of
the holes open, you're likely to over
apply this insecticide in your garden.
To control the aphids, I chose a ready to use spray formulation of insectidal soap, which has an active ingredient name of 'potassium salts of fatty acids' (or something similar). Insecticidal soaps work by degrading the exoskeleton of the insect. Thus, they best against small, soft-bodied insects, such as aphids, whiteflies or thrips, and tend to have little effect on larger, harder-bodied insects such as beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers. Insectidal soaps must contact the aphids in order for the insecticide to work. Unlike Bt-k, insectidal soaps do not require the insect to eat the toxin. Instead, the insectidal soap must contact the aphids in order for the insecticide to work.

Label of an insecticidal soap product, with the
active ingredient 'Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids'.
I had another option available to me. When my flea beetle (and my aphid) problem became too big for me to manage using physical controls (i.e. picking the beetles off of the plant) or biological controls (i.e. relying on parasitoids to help me control the beetles), I needed to incorporate a chemical control into my integrated pest management approach. I decided to use an organic pyrethrin. Pyrethrins are an organic insecticide that works against a wide range of insects. Even though it is an organic insecticide (and thus has the advantage of degrading rapidly in the environment), I avoid using this product when I can. It surely helped me to control the flea beetles and aphids on my potatoes, but if I had accidentally sprayed the pesticide onto a parasitoid or a bee, it would have probably killed those beneficial insects. Because the aphid problem on my kale could be managed with insecticidal soaps, I chose not to use this broader spectrum and combination product.

Note that the product below has two active ingredients: pyrethrins plus potassium salts of fatty acids (i.e. insectidal soaps). This is an example of a combination product. The product above has only one active ingredient: potassium salts of fatty acids.
Label of a combination insecticide, including broad
spectrum pyrethrins, as well as insecticidal soap.

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Why Garden?

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Why do you garden? If you were to send me your responses, I’m sure I would receive as many unique answers to this question, as there are Master Gardeners. However, I thought you might be interested in these research findings on the benefits of gardening. You may already know these benefits to be true, but it is nice to see them documented by research:

Gardening Provides Relief from Acute Stress. Participants were asked to perform a stressful task, and then were asked to either read indoors for 30 minutes or garden outdoors for 30 minutes. Participants who gardened had their positive mood completely restored to what it was prior to performing the stressful task. Moods deteriorated for those that read. Both groups saw a reduction in the stress hormone, cortisol, but the reduction was greater for those that gardened.

Van Den Berg and Custers. 2011. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. J Health Psychol. 16: 3-1.

Gardening Helps Your Family Eat Better. About 75% of adults don’t get their daily recommended requirement of fruits and vegetables. However, adults with a household member who gardens consumed fruits and vegetables 1.4 times more per day than those without a gardener in the family. These same adults were 3.5 times more likely to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily.

Alaimo et al. 2008. Fruit and vegetable intake among urban community gardeners. J Nutr. Educ. Behav. 40: 94-101.

Gardening Promotes Physical Health. Active gardeners (150+ minutes per week spent gardening) burn nearly twice as many calories per week than casual gardeners (120-150 minutes per week) and non-gardeners. They also have better physical function, hand function and life satisfaction. But, active gardeners also have worse back pain, so be careful out there!
Park, Sin-Ae. 2007. Gardening as a Physical Activity for Health in Older Adults. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Horticulture, Forestry and Recreational Resources. Kansas State University.

Gardening and Other Outdoor Activities are Effective Treatments for Childhood Obesity. Children seeking treatment for obesity were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: individual therapy, group therapy, summer camp (outdoor activities, including gardening) and advice in 1 session. All groups decreased their body mass index, relative to those in a control group (no intervention), and the results lasted 6 months after the intervention. If I were a kid, I know that I would enjoy summer camp and gardening a whole lot more than therapy . Take joy in introducing the next generation to gardening!
Braet et al. 2008. Follow-up results of different treatment programs for obese children. Acta Pediatrica 86: 397-402.

Gardening Decreases Risk of Dementia. In a 16 year study that followed 2,800 men and women, all of whom were free of dementia at the start of the study, those who gardened had a 36% reduced risk of developing dementia. In other good news, those who had a single drink on a daily basis reduced their risk of developing dementia by 34%.
Simons et al. 2006. Lifestyle factors and risk of dementia: Dubbo study of the elderly. MJA. 184: 68-70.

So, continue to garden and continue to teach others how to garden. It will benefit our individual, family and community health. Afterall, the OSU Extension Master Gardener Program does subscribe to research-based information. I know that I sure like the results of the Simons et al. study, especially now that I live in a state with amazing wines and beer!

Thursday, June 16, 2011

OSU Master Gardener's photostream

Talking Water GardensTalking Water GardensTalking Water GardensTalking Water GardensTalking Water GardensTalking Water Gardens
Tree Well with MulchTree Well with Fine FescueUrban Tree IssuesUrban Tree IssuesPruning WoundStructural Tree Damage
Urban Tree with too little Soil VolumeiPhone Download June 16 2011 312Green Wall, Whole Foods MarketGreen Wall, YVR AirportRecycled Garden ArtRaised Garden Beds at the DIG
Bee on DaisyRecycled Garden Art at the DIGCompost Demonstration Area at the DIGiPhone Download June 16 2011 152Raised Bed at the DIGDragonfly on Asteraceae

Plants, places and other goodies that may be of interest to Oregon Master Gardeners.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Battle Against Flea Beetles

This weekend, I noticed small holes chewed in my potato plants. Whenever I see holes chewed in leaves, I immediately think 'it must be a beetle'. In fact, loopers, armyworms, cutworms and grasshoppers also chew holes in leaf tissue. However, the small, tiny holes in my potatoes were a clear indication that flea beetles were to blame. Flea beetle damage has been described as a leaf looking like it has been shot with several shots from a bb gun (albeit, very small bb's). Whitney Cranshaw describes the damage as looking like the leaves have been hit by fine buckshot - but not knowing what buckshot is, I default to my past experience with bb's. This is very different than the wholesale destruction (often called 'skeletonization') caused by loopers, armyworms and cutworms. It is also different than the large 'chomps' taken from leaves by grasshoppers.

It didn't take me too long to locate the offending chewers. Flea beetles are small and black. When disturbed, they jump off of the leaf much like a flea might jump from a dog. Flea beetles, however, are not blood suckers. They're leaf chewers that locate their host plants using the chemical cues that the plants emit.

Herein lies my problem. I prefer not to use pesticides in the garden. This is a personal preference - due to my being (1) lazy and (2) cheap. I don't like to spend money on pesticides. I don't like to take the time it takes to calculate application rates. Although I love math, I try to keep my garden a math-free zone. Unfortunately, to judiciously use pesticides or fertilizers in the garden requires that I pull out a tape measure - document the area on which I will use the chemical(s) - carefully read the pesticide or fertilizer label - and then translate the area where I will use the chemical(s) to an amount that will come out of the container. I'm just not that motivated.

So what is the problem? Flea beetles are very, very, very, very (you get the idea) difficult to control. They're strong fliers. They locate their host plants by sensing ('smelling') the plants' chemical cues. Worse yet, research strongly suggests that some flea beetles can use the chemical cues in the plants on which they are feeding, to make an aggregation pheromone (Peng and Weiss 1992). This sets the poor gardener (e.g. me) up for failure. One male flea beetle lands on my potatoes and starts to feed. He incorporates the chemical constituents of the leaf tissue, and re-manufactures at least some of these into Axe Body Spray for beetles. Basically, he turns my poor potatoes into his singles bar. No wonder I noticed so many mating beetles on my potatoes this morning, despite my efforts to pick the plants clean just 12 hours earlier. Given this type of chemical wizardry, it would be virtually impossible for me to control the flea beetles by hand-picking them off of the leaves - my preferred pest control method.

Weighing my pest management options, I refer to the PNW Handbook, and look up the entry for flea beetles. The PNW Handbooks are what we use in the Oregon Master Gardener Program, for research-based and reviewed pest control options. The PNWs don't always list the full suite of cultural, physical and biological controls available. But, if chemicals are necessary (which they may be, to control the flea beetles on my potatoes), then the PNWs provide a list of reviewed products. From the list of home use products for flea beetles, I see that neem oil is listed. Neem oil is an organic pesticide that can be used to control a variety of insects and pathogens. Because it is an organic pesticide, it tends to degrade quicker in the environment, relative to synthetic pesticide options. (Please note that organic pesticides are still pesticides. Organic pesticides are not necessarily less toxic than synthetic options, and in some cases are more toxic.)

But, I'm not yet keen to use neem. This is my personal preference, and not my professional recommendation to other gardeners. My own aversion to using chemicals, at this time, is because along with the flea beetles that were feeding on the tops of my potato leaves, I found aphids feeding and giving birth on the underside of the leaves. During Master Gardener training classes, I've often lectured about the benefits of 'popping' aphids. Squish an aphid, and you magically attract parasitoid wasps. Akin to how male flea beetles can use a plant's chemistry to attract the ladies, parasitoid wasps are able to 'smell' the chemicals that are released when an aphid is crushed. Some species of aphids release alarm pheromones when they are crushed. The alarm pheromones send a signal to nearby aphids: 'Abandon ship! We've been found! Parachute to safety, or else be eaten!'. The cool thing about alarm pheromones is that parasitoid wasps, ladybugs and other aphid enemies can hone in on a group of aphids, using released alarm pheromones as a guide (Micha and Wyss 1996). Yesterday, I crushed aphids. Today, I found parasitoids crawling all over my potatoes. A coincidence? Probably not.

So I'm left with potato plants that are infested with flea beetles, and that also have a few aphids (the bad guys). But, these same plants have parasitoid wasps and ladybug eggs (the good guys).

I want to get rid of the bad guys, and will most likely need a chemical solution to take care of the flea beetles. But, even the organic option - neem oil - is known to have negative effects on parasitoids, ladybugs an other natural enemies (Lowery and Isman 1995). The same is true for other insecticides listed for control of flea beetle.

What will I do? Because: (1) my potato plants are relatively large, (2) my tolerance for damage is high, and (3) my aversion to garden math during non-working hours is even higher - I will continue to vigilantly hand pick pests off of my plants. But, if I appear to be losing the hand-picking battle, I'll pull out my calculator, work through garden algebra, and judiciously apply a pesticide on affected leaves. I'll follow label directions, will continue to scout my plants, and will turn to floating row covers to keep the beetles off of my plants while they're looking for places to feed and mate. Once the flea beetle danger has passed, I'll remove the row covers, and look forward to harvesting healthy spuds in the fall. Although, it's hard to predict when the flea beetle danger may pass, since there can be 2-3 generations per year in Western Oregon.

Wish me luck!


Top: Flea beetle and flea beetle damage (photo taken by: Gail Langellotto)
Middle: Parasitoid wasp (photo taken by: Gail Langellotto)
Bottom: Ladybug eggs (photo taken by: Steve Rhodaback)

References Cited

Lowery, D.T. and M.B. Isman. 1995. Toxicity of neem to natural enemies of aphids. Phytoparasitica 23: 297-306.

Micha, S.G. and U. Wyss. 1996. Aphid alarm pheromone (E)-B-farnesene: a host finding kairomone for the aphid primary parasitoid Aphidius uzbekistanicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae). Chemoecology 7: 132-139.

Peng, C. and M. J. Weiss. 1992. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 18: 875-884.

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Annual OSU Recommended Vegetable Varieties List Released


OSU-recommended vegetables provide best yields in local gardens

By Judy Scott, 541-737-1386,
Sources: Annie Chozinski, 541-737-8959,
Jim Myers, 541-737-3083,

CORVALLIS, Ore. — Vegetable varieties and melons recommended by Oregon State University for 2011 are adapted to local growing conditions to produce the best yields in home gardens. The OSU Extension Service recommends the updated varieties listed here for all areas of the state except regions indicated.

"We look at these varieties at least two years before we can make recommendations," said Annie Chozinski, faculty research assistant with the horticulture department at OSU.

"Some we consider for many years, especially if they vary from year to year,” she said. “We observe and measure many traits, but it's the overall score that helps us decide. If something has high scores in everything but succumbs to disease pressure, it is not recommended. Similarly, if something is highly disease resistant but has odd flavors, size or variability, we don't recommend it."


I. Oregon coast: cool but long season of 190 to 250 days.
II. Western valleys: 150-250 day season; warm days, cool nights; length of season may very considerably from year to year.
III. High elevations: short growing season of 90 to 120 days; frost possible in any month.
IV. Columbia and Snake River valleys: 120- to 200-day season; hot days, warm nights, length of season fairly well defined.

Recommended varieties:

(not regions III and IV) Green Globe, Imperial Star, Emerald.

Mary Washington, Jersey Knight, Jersey Giant, UC 157, Purple Passion.

(green bush) Tendercrop, Venture, Slenderette, Oregon 91G, Oregon Trail, Provider, Jade, Oregon 54.
(flat Italian) Roma II.
(French filet) Nickel, Straight ‘N Narrow.
(green pole) Blue Lake, Kentucky Wonder, Romano, Cascade Giant, Kentucky
Blue, Oregon Giant.
(wax bush) Goldenrod, Goldrush, Indy Gold, Slenderwax.
(lima, bush, large seeded) Fordhook 242 (or any Fordhook).
(lima, bush, small seeded) Thorogreen, Baby Fordhook, Jackson Wonder.
(dry) Pinto, Red Kidney, White Kidney (Cannellini), Cranberry, Etna.
(edible Soybeans or Edamame) Envy, Early Hakucho, Butterbean, Sayamusume, Misono Green.

Ruby Queen, Red Ace, Kestrel, Early Wonder, Pacemaker III, Detroit Dark Red, Red Cloud.
(cylindrical) Cylindra, Forono.
(golden) Golden.
(novelty) Blankoma, Chioggia.
(greens) Early Wonder Tall Top, Bull’s Blood.

Premium Crop, Packman, Arcadia, Early Dividend, Windsor, Emerald Pride, Gypsy.
(Romanesco type) Romanesco, Veronica.

Brussels Sprouts
Jade Cross "E", Oliver.

(early) Parel, Primax, Farao, Tendersweet, Gonzales, Surprise.
(main season) Golden Acre, Bravo, Charmant, Cambria, Invento.
(late fall, winter) Danish Ballhead, Storage Hybrid #4, Blue Thunder.
(red) Ruby Perfection, Red Acre.
(savoy) Melissa, Savoy Express, Savoy Ace, Perfection, Famosa.

Chinese cabbage
Michihili, Monument, China Express.
Pac choi: Mei Qing Choy, Joi Choi.

Red Core Chantenay, Royal Chantenay, Scarlet Nantes, Mokum, Bolero, Apache, Danvers, Sugarsnax 54, Nelson, Napa, Kuroda, Nantindo, Magnum, Navarino, Sweetness III, Napoli, Yaya, Vitana, Skywalker.
(yellow) Yellowstone.
(white) White Satin.
(purple) Purple Haze.
(baby carrots) Minicore, Parmex, Thumbelina.

Snowball "Y" Improved, Snow Crown, Candid Charm, Apex, Amazing.
(Purple) Violet Queen, Graffiti.
(green) Panther.
(Romanesco type) see Broccoli.

Fordhook Giant, Rhubarb, Bright Lights, Bright Yellow, Silverado, Broadstem Green.

(green) Crystal Hat (tall, slender heads).
(red, also known as Radicchio) Chiogga Red Preco, Palla Rosa Special, Indigo, Treviso (tall, slender heads).

Utah 52-70R, Tango.
Celeriac: Brilliant, Diamont.
Collards: Vates, Champion, Flash.


Yellow Kernels
Standard sweet (early): Sundance, Early Sunglow, Seneca Horizon.
(main season): Jubilee (also called Golden Jubilee).
Supersweet (early): Butterfruit.
(main season): Supersweet Jubilee.
Sugary enhanced (very early): Sugar Buns.
(early): Precocious, Spring Treat.
(main season): Incredible, Kandy King, Kandy Korn, Legend, Bodacious.

White Kernels (must be isolated from yellow or bicolor types to get all white kernels).
Supersweet (main season): How Sweet It Is, Xtratender 378A, Mirai 421W.
Sugary enhanced (early): Sugar Pearl
Sugary enhanced (main season): Argent, Whiteout, Silver Princess.

Bicolor Kernels
Supersweet (early): Xtratender 272A, Mirai 308BC.
(main season): Honey and Pearl, Xtratender 277A.
Sugary enhanced (early): Trinity, Fleet.
(main season): Temptation, Brocade, Delectable, Mystique.
Triple Sweet types (sh2su hybrids): Sweet Rhythm, Serendipity, Sweet Chorus,
Nantasket, Renaissance.

(must be isolated from other corn): Wampum, Chinook.

Note: Kernel quality of all the above corn varieties may be dramatically altered under certain pollination conditions. Supersweets must be isolated from other types.

(pickling) SMR 58, Pioneer, Bush Pickle, County Fair, Clinton, Cool Breeze, Regal, Vertina.
(slicing) Burpee Hybrid, Marketmore 86 & 97, Poinsett, Raider, Dasher II,
Slicemaster, Intimidator, Tasty Green, Orient Express, Genuine, Sweet Marketmore, Tasty Jade.
(novelty) Armenian, Lemon.

(not regions I, III) Dusky, Epic, Bambino (round), Cloud Nine, Calliope, Burpee Hybrid, Millionaire, Classic, Lavender Touch (white with lavender blush), Dancer (violet).
(elongated) Megal, Bride, Orient Express.

Green Curled, Batavian, Salad King, Neos.

(ornamental) Harrowsmith Select, Little Guys Mix, Corsican, Turk’s Turban, Aladdin, Large Bottle, Goblin Eggs, Autumn Wings.

Dwarf Blue Curled Scotch, Improved Vates, Siberian, Winterbor, Winter Red, Nero di Toscana, Blue Ridge, Red Bor, Red Ursa.

Early White Vienna, Early Purple Vienna, Kongo, Kolibri, Eder.

American Flag, King Richard, Kilima.

(heading, main season) Summertime, Ithaca.
(red leaf) Prizehead, Red Sails, Redina, New Red Fire, Merlot, Red Tide.
(green leaf) Salad Bowl, Grand Rapids, Slobolt, Pom Pom.
(oak leaf) Oaky Red Splash, Cocarde, Mascara, Blade.
(romaine) Paris Island, Valmaine, Green Towers, Outredgeous, Devils Tounge, Little Gem, Freckles.
(bibb type) Optima, Buttercrunch.
(butterhead) Esmeralda, Marvel of Four Seasons, Emerald Oak.
(batavian) Nevada, Sierra.

(not regions I and III)
(Cantaloupe/muskmelon) Ambrosia, Harper Hybrid, Gold Star, Classic, Pulsar, Superstar, Earlisweet, Primo, Fastbreak, Hannah’s Choice, Athena, Earlichamp, Sarah's Choice.
(Honeydew) Earlidew, Honey Orange.
(Galia types) Galia, Passport, Arava.
(Crenshaw types) Early Hybrid Crenshaw.
(Canary) Sugarnut.

Mustard Greens
Green Wave.
(long standing) Osaka Purple, Giant Red.

(yellow) Copra, Prince, First Edition, New York Early, Candy.
(red) Redwing, Mars.
(white) White Sweet Spanish, Superstar.
(overwintering) Walla Walla Sweet.
(green bunching) Ishikura, Tokyo Long White, He-shi-ko.

Triple Moss Curled, Banquet, Dark Green Italian Plain.

Harris Model, All America, Hollow Crown, Gladiator, Andover, Cobham Improved Marrow, Javelin.

(shelling) Novella II, Oregon Trail, Oregon Pioneer, Green Arrow, Maxigolt.
(oriental edible pod) Oregon Sugar Pod II, Oregon Giant.
(snap pea, bush) Sugar Daddy, Super Snappy, Cascadia, Sugar Sprint, Sugar Ann.
(snap pea, pole) Sugar Snap or Super Sugar Snap (virus susceptible; plant early).

(sweet bell, green to red) Parks Early Thickset, Camelot, Fat 'N Sassy, Ace,
Bellboy, Jupiter, Yankee Bell, North Star, Lady Bell, King Arthur, Lantern.
(sweet bell, green to yellow) Golden Bell, Golden Summer.
(sweet bell, green to orange) Ariane, Mandarin.
(sweet bell, green to purple) Lilac Bell, Purple Beauty, Tequila.
(sweet bell, green to lavender to red) Islander.
(sweet bell, green to chocolate) Hershey.
(sweet bell, ivory to red) Ivory.
(specialty sweet types) Sweet Banana, Banana Supreme, Bananarama, Gypsy, Biscayne, Pizza, Lipstick, Apple, Paprika Supreme, The Godfather, Giant Marconi, Round of Hungary, Sweet Cayenne, Carmen, Corno di Toro Yellow.
(cayenne) Super Cayenne II, Andy, Cayenne Long Slim.
(jalapeno) Tam Jalapeno, Early Jalapeno, Conchos, Fresno, Mitla.
(paprika) Mariachi, Paprika Supreme.
(specialty hot types) Cherry Bomb, Serrano, Anaheim TMR23,
Caribbean Red Habanero, Hot Paper Lantern, Bulgarian Carrot, Aji Amarillo.
(novelty, ornamental) Marbles, Riot, Pretty in Purple.

(red) Red Pontiac, Norland, Red La Soda, Cranberry Red.
(white) Russet Burbank, Superior, Goldrush, Kennebec, Butte.
(yellow) Yellow Finn, Yukon Gold, Bintje, Desiree, Red Gold (red skin, yellow flesh),
(purple) All Blue.
(fingerling) French Fingerling.

(large) Jack O'Lantern, Howden, Autumn Gold, Lumina (white), Magic Lantern, Rouge Vif d'Etampes (Cinderella), Rock Star, New Rocket, Sorcerer, Charisma.
(small) Small Sugar (also called Small Sugar Pie), Orange Smoothie.
(compact vines) Tom Fox, Oz, Spirit.
(novelty and exhibition) Big Max, Dill's Atlantic Giant, Prizewinner.
(hulless seeded types) Baby Bear, Snack Jack, Trickster, Kakai.
(mini ornamental types) Jack Be Little, Wee-Be-Little, Lil Pump-ke-mon, Baby Boo.

(red) Fuego, Comet, French Breakfast, Cherry Belle, Champion, Cherriette, Crunchy Royale, Pink Beauty.
(white) Burpee White, White Icicle.
(large Japanese type) Sakurajima Mammoth.

see Chicory.

American Purple Top, Laurentian.


(spring planted for early summer harvest) (smooth leaf) Bloomsdale Long Standing, Olympia.
(savoy) Correnta, Unipack 151, Melody, Hellcat, Butterflay.
(late summer planted for fall harvest) (smooth leaf) Oriental Giant, Bordeaux.

(yellow) Early Prolific Straightneck, Multipik, Supersett, Fancycrook, Sunray, Yellow Crookneck, Goldbar, Gentry.
(green zucchini) Ambassador, Seneca, Elite, Tigress, Aristocrat, Raven, Cashflow, Geode (round), Floridor (round).
(yellow zucchini) Gold Rush, Butterstick.
(scallop) Sunburst, Sunny Delight.
(other summer) Tromboncino (C. moschata).

(not Region 1)
(misc) Golden Delicious, Banana, Blue Hubbard.
(Buttercup/Kabocha) Sweet Meat, Sweet Mama, Ambercup, Buttercup Burgess Strain, Gold Nugget, Black Forest, Autumn Cup, Bonbon.
(Delicata) Sugar Loaf, Honey Boat.
(Acorn) Table Queen, Mesa Queen, Table Ace, Taybelle, Table Gold (orange), Cream of the Crop (white).
(Butternut) Early Butternut, Ultra, JWS 6823.
(Spaghetti) Spaghetti, Pasta, Stripetti, Small Wonder.

Sweet Potato
(not regions I, II, III) Centennial, Georgia Jet.

(very early) Oregon Eleven.
(early) Early Girl, Oregon Spring, Santiam, Oregon Pride, Oregon Star, Siletz, Legend.
(medium) Willamette, Pik Red, Celebrity, Sunleaper, Mountain Spring, Medford, First Lady II, Big Beef.
(late) Big Boy, Better Boy, Fantastic, Bush Big Boy, BHN 444, Ramapo.
(cherry type) Oregon Cherry, Gold Nugget, Sweet Million, Cherry Grande, Sun Gold, Early Cherry, Thai Pink, Juliet, Sunsugar, Large German Cherry, Sweet Baby Girl, Orange Paruche.
(yellow) Jubilee.
(orange) Orange blossom.
(paste) Oroma, Saucy, Halley 3155, Viva Italia, Super Marzano, Macero II, Health Kick,
Classica, Olivade.
(heirloom) Brandywine (Sudduth’s Strain or potato leaf strain), Seattle’s Best of All.

(root) Purple Top White Globe, Royal Crown, Tokyo Cross.
(greens) Shogoin.

(red fleshed) (not regions I, III) Crimson Sweet, Charleston Gray, Sweet Favorite, Carmen, Sweet Diane, Sweet Cheer, Verona.
(yellow fleshed) Yellow Doll, Sunshine.
(orange fleshed) New Orchid.
(red seedless) Millennium.
(ice box) Sugar Baby, Tiger Baby.

About Garden News from OSU Extension Service: The Extension Service's "Gardening Encyclopedia" web page,, links to a broad spectrum of information on Oregon gardening, such as news, calendars, how-to publications, audio programs, the Master Gardener program and "Northwest Gardeners e-News."